What is Pharming in Cyber Security?

What is pharming in cyber security?

Pharming in cyber security is a growing concern. It’s a sophisticated form of online fraud that can have severe implications for both individuals and organisations.

We explore what pharming is, how it works, its potential impacts, and how to protect against it.

Defining pharming in cyber security

Pharming in cyber security attack by a hacker.

Pharming is a cyber attack technique that redirects a website’s traffic to a fraudulent site without the user’s knowledge. This is typically done to steal sensitive information, such as login credentials or credit card details.

The term ‘pharming’ is derived from ‘farming’ and ‘phishing’, as it ‘farms’ users on a mass scale, unlike phishing, which targets individuals.

Pharming attacks can be highly effective because they can occur without any noticeable signs.

The fraudulent sites often look identical to the legitimate ones, making it difficult for users to realise they’ve been redirected. This stealthy nature makes pharming in cyber security a potent threat.

The mechanics of pharming

Pharming operates by exploiting the Domain Name System (DNS), which is the internet’s equivalent of a phone book.

When you type a website address into your browser, the DNS translates it into an IP address, directing your browser to the correct website. In a pharming attack, the hacker manipulates the DNS entries, causing the browser to redirect to a fraudulent site.

This manipulation can occur in two ways: DNS poisoning and host file modification.

DNS poisoning involves corrupting the server’s DNS entries, affecting all users who access the compromised website.

Host file modification, on the other hand, involves altering the DNS entries on an individual’s computer, making it a more targeted attack.

Impacts of pharming in cyber security

A hacker employing pharming in cyber security.

Pharming in cyber security can have severe consequences, particularly for businesses. The most immediate impact is financial loss, as hackers often use pharming to steal banking details or credit card information.

However, the repercussions can extend far beyond immediate financial damage.

Pharming in cyber security can also lead to a significant loss of trust and reputation for businesses. If customers find out their data has been compromised due to a pharming attack, they may lose faith in the company’s ability to protect their information.

This can result in a loss of business and can be particularly damaging for small businesses that rely heavily on their reputation.

Legal implications of pharming

Pharming in cyber security can also have legal implications for businesses. In many jurisdictions, companies are legally required to protect their customers’ data.

If a business falls victim to a pharming attack and customer data is compromised, they could potentially face legal action.

Furthermore, businesses may also be required to notify customers and regulatory bodies of the breach, which can lead to further reputational damage.

Therefore, businesses must understand the risks associated with pharming and take steps to protect against it.

Protecting against pharming in cyber security

Data security expert protecting business from pharming in cyber security.

Fortunately, there are several measures that individuals and businesses can take to protect against pharming.

These include regularly updating software, using secure and encrypted connections, and educating users about the risks of pharming in cyber security.

Regular software updates are crucial as they often include patches for security vulnerabilities that could be exploited in a pharming attack.

Using secure and encrypted connections, such as Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS), can also help protect against pharming by ensuring that data is securely transmitted.

Educating users on pharming

Education is a critical aspect of protection against pharming. Users should be made aware of the risks of pharming in cyber security, and how to identify potential signs of an attack.

This includes checking the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) of websites to ensure they are legitimate and being wary of unsolicited emails or messages that ask for personal information.

Furthermore, businesses should consider implementing cyber security training for their employees.


Pharming in cyber security is a significant threat.

By understanding what pharming is, how it works, and the potential impacts, individuals and businesses can take steps to protect against this sophisticated form of online fraud.

While the threat of pharming is real, with the right knowledge and precautions, it is possible to significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to a pharming attack.

To enhance your knowledge in addressing pharming threats and bolster your overall cyber security skills, explore the Institute of Data’s in-depth Cyber Security program.

To learn more, we encourage you to schedule a complimentary career consultation with our team, to discuss your options in our cyber security program.

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